Passage Reading and English Comprehension
(a) warn parents about the dangers of not vaccinating their children against measles
(b) criticize The Lancet for publishing Wakefield’s article without vetting it more thoroughly
(c) provide an overview of the MMR vaccine controversy, including its consequences and responsible parties
(d) inform readers about the history of the MMR vaccine, especially in the U.S. and the UK
1738. As used in paragraph 1, which is the best antonym for spurious?
1739. Which of the following statements most accurately summarizes the author’s explanation for the increase in reported cases of ASD over the past 25 years?
(a) Over the past 25 years, parents have been more likely to have their young children inoculated against MMR
(b) Since the results of Wakefield’s study were published, parents have been less likely to have their young children inoculated against MMR
(c) In the past 25 years, doctors have developed a better understanding of genetics, which is thought to be the leading factor in whether or not a child will develop ASD
(d) The increase in reported cases of ASD is mainly the result of an increased understanding of how to recognize ASD
1740. Which of the following pieces of evidence from paragraphs 2 and 3 support(s) the author’s claim that popular media is partially responsible for creating unnecessary panic?
I. “An article published in The Lancet, a respected British medical journal, reported on eight cases
of autism that could possibly be traced back to the administration of an MMR vaccine”
II. “In 2002, over 1200 articles were written about the link between MMR vaccines and ASD. Less than 30% of these articles mentioned that an overwhelming amount of scientific evidence suggested that these vaccinations were completely safe”
III. “Parents appeared on television sharing anecdotal evidence regarding the links between their child’s inoculation and the onset of ASD”
(a) l only
(b) II only
(c) I and II only
(d) II and III only
1741. In paragraph 4, the author cites all of the following as ways that Wakefield’s study was discredited except
(a) investigators discovered that the parents of children in Wakefield’s study were litigants in a lawsuit against the pharmaceutical company that made the MMR vaccine
(b) The Lancet eventually retracted Wakefield’s original article
(c) it was discovered that Wakefield accepted money from lawyers who were filing a suit against the pharmaceutical companies responsible for making the MMR vaccine
(d) an investigation into Wakefield’s research found that he had falsified data in his initial study
1742. Based on its use in paragraph 4, it can be inferred that the phrase “conflicts of interest” means situations in which people
(a) unethically accept large sums of money
(b) have interests that fail to accord with those of the mainstream media
(c) falsify data and manipulate test results
(d) have personal interests that threaten their official objectivity
1743. As used in paragraph 6, which is the best synonym for anomalous?
1744. Which of the following pieces of evidence, if true, would best strengthen the author’s argument in paragraph 6?
(a) An estimated 1.4 million measles deaths are averted each year due to MMR immunization
(b) 90% of parents in the UK who decided not to immunize their children against measles reported that they did so against their doctors’ wishes
(c) Measles outbreaks in Japan can be traced back to Japanese exchange students who were studying in the UK
(d) In the United States, over 60% of children who are not immunized against MMR never exhibit any symptoms of the measles
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