Passage Reading and English Comprehension
(a) The Byzantine Empire was a unique case in which the usual order of military and economic revival preceding cultural revival was reversed.
(b) The economic, cultural, and military revival in the Byzantine Empire between the eighth and eleventh centuries was similar in its order to the sequence of revivals in Augustan Rome and fifth century Athens.
(c) The revival of the Byzantine Empire between the eighth and eleventh centuries shows cultural rebirth preceding economic and military revival, the reverse of the commonly accepted order of progress.
(d) The eighth-century revival of Byzantine learning is an inexplicable phenomenon, and its economic and military precursors have yet to be discovered.
258. The primary purpose of the paragraph is which of the following?
(a) To establish the uniqueness of the Byzantine revival
(b) To show that Augustan Rome and fifth-century Athens are examples of cultural, economic, and military expansion against which all subsequent cases must be measured
(c) To suggest that cultural, economic, and military advances have tended to be closely interrelated in different societies
(d) To argue that, while the revivals of Augustan Rome and fifth-century Athens were similar, they are unrelated to other historical examples
259. It can be inferred from the passage that by the eleventh century the Byzantine military forces
(a) had reached their peak and begun to decline
(b) had eliminated the Bulgarian army
(c) were comparable in size to the army of Rome under Augustus
(d) were strong enough to withstand the Abbasid Caliphate’s military forces
260. It can be inferred from the passage that the Byzantine Empire sustained significant territorial losses
(a) in 600
(b) during the seventh century
(c) a century after the cultural achievements of the Byzantine Empire had been lost
(d) soon after the revival of Byzantine learning
261. In the third paragraph, the author most probably provides an explanation of the apparent connections among economic, military, and cultural development in order to
(a) suggest that the process of revival in Byzantium accords with this model
(b) set up an order of events that is then shown to be not generally applicable to the case of Byzantium
(c) cast aspersions on traditional historical scholarship about Byzantium
(d) suggest that Byzantium represents a case for which no historical precedent exists
262. Which of the following does the author mention as crucial evidence concerning the manner in which the Byzantine revival began?
(a) The Byzantine military revival of the 860’s led to economic and cultural advances.
(b) The Byzantine cultural revival lasted until 1453.
(c) The Byzantine economic recovery began in the 900’s.
(d) The revival of Byzantine learning began toward the end of the eighth century.
263. According to the author, “The common explanation” of connections between economic, military, and cultural development is
(a) revolutionary and too new to have been applied to the history of the Byzantine Empire
(b) reasonable, but an antiquated theory of the nature of progress
(c) not applicable to the Byzantine revival as a whole, but does perhaps accurately describe limited periods during the revival
(d) equally applicable to the Byzantine case as a whole and to the history of military, economic, and cultural advances in ancient Greece and Rome
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