(a) Insects' tracheae are composed not of rigid bone-like material but of a flexible membrane
(b) The larger the insect, the more oxygen it takes in
(c) Respiration in small insects too must occur by means of lung ventilation
(d) The amount of oxygen that large insects take in is too great to be attributed to diffusion
339. New sensor technology may make it possible to link the digital world of computing to the physical world as never before. The sensor technology would provide data on the number of consumers in real time to fields like energy, traffic management, and health care. Since linking the digital world of computing to the physical world depends on advances in analytics software, it follows that analytics software enables the sensor technology.
Which one of the following best identifies the flaw in the above reasoning?
(a) It fails to demonstrate a necessary relation between analytics software and sensor technology
(b) It assumes that the new sensor technology would provide real data
(c) It assumes that linking the digital world and the physical world depends solely on analytics software
(d) It does not take into account the fact that the direction in which analytics software may advance cannot yet be known
340. British Colonial troops engaged in biological warfare, a group of revisionist historians argue, when they distributed pox infected blankets to Native Americans. These Native Americans fought on the side of the French, who were enemies of the British, during 18th century battles over Western U.S. territories. But for one thing, there are few indications that Native Americans in any significant number took up weapons in support of the French forces. For another, the Native American population suffered two devastating smallpox epidemics as a result of the contact of trade prior to the alleged incident, and so the device of the pox-infected blankets would have been clearly superfluous. Therefore, the claim of the revisionist historians is highly doubtful.
Which one of the following is an underlying assumption of the above argument?
(a) The Native Americans became allies of the French because both were enemies of the British
(b) The French forces could not have distributed the pox infected blankets
(c) Distributing pox infected blankets is an example of biological warfare
(d) The smallpox epidemic already suffered by Native Americans would have immunized all Native Americans against smallpox
341. Normally, increases in the price of a product decrease its sales except when the price increase accompanies an improvement in the product. Art is unusual, however. Often increases in the price of a particular artist's paintings will result in increased sales, even when the size, medium and style of the painting remains unchanged. Which of the following, if true, does most to explain the anomaly described above?
(a) The choice of paintings on the market by various artists is extremely wide
(b) Many consumers make decisions about which painting to purchase on the basis of art reviews published by galleries
(c) Consumers selecting a painting in a gallery often use the price charged as their main guide to the painting's quality
(d) Gallery owners can generally increase the sales of a beginner artist's paintings temporarily by introducing a price discount
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