(a) Because trips within Kawaii are relatively short, planes spend little time at cruising altitude.
(b) As jets have become more popular, their increased price has erased the financial advantages of their fuel efficiency.
(c) Turboprop planes have also enjoyed a resurgence in other island nations, especially those with extreme climates.
(d) Many of the independent airlines that once served Kawaii have been purchased by larger multinational airlines.
167. A small percentage of dogs are believed to be able to detect the onset of seizures in their owners. A dog with this ability will display characteristic behaviors, such as staring intently at its owner, just before a seizure occurs. Observations of epilepsy patients do not reveal any noticeable change in odor, behavior, or appearance before a seizure. However, seizure-detecting dogs can predict a seizure even when the patient is in another room.
If the statements above are true, which of the following is most strongly supported by them?
(a) Seizure-detecting dogs are not appreciably more accurate in predicting seizures when they are in the room with a patient than when they are in another room.
(b) No dogs are able to detect the onset of a heart attack in their owners.
(c) Some dogs must be able to recognize a change in odor that medical science has not yet identified.
(d) Seizure-detecting dogs do not rely on visual information to predict a seizure.
168. If the length of Amanda's membership was rounded up to the nearest whole month by her gym, then Amanda was charged for how many months for her gym membership?
(1) Each month's membership fee was the same, and the total charge for Amanda's membership was $120.
(2) If Amanda had ended her membership 20 days sooner, she would have been charged $30 less.
(a) Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) alone is not sufficient.
(b) Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) alone is not sufficient.
(c) BOTH statements TOGETHER are sufficient, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient.
(d) EACH statement ALONE is sufficient.
169. Although the price of gasoline can sometimes reach uncomfortable highs, the true price of gas is not reflected in the price paid at the pump. Oil companies receive billions of dollars in tax credits and subsidies from the government. In addition, taxes pay for the maintenance of roads and highways, which the oil companies rely on to create a market for their product. Therefore, drivers of small, high-mileage vehicles are subsidizing the gas purchases of drivers of gas-inefficient vehicles.
Which of the following would it be most useful to determine in order to evaluate the argument?
(a) Whether other segments of the population, such as pedestrians or bicyclists, derive benefits from road and highway maintenance
(b) Whether, on average, drivers of high-mileage vehicles of drivers of gas-inefficient vehicles spend more per month on gas
(c) Whether oil companies earn a substantial proportion of their profits from automobile gasoline sales
(d) Whether the benefits of road and highway maintenance accrue disproportionately to drivers of gas-inefficient vehicles
170. Geologist: The element tantalum, which originates as a mineral ore known as coltan, is used as a capacitor in computers and cell phones. Most tantalum is exported by Canada, China, South America, and Australia. However, a small percentage of the world supply comes from poorly governed or conflict-torn regions of Africa and is mined using objectionable practices such as child labor. A group of scientists has begun working on a method that I believe will be able to detect chemical signatures that can distinguish tantalum samples according to their location of origin. Their technique needs to be further developed into a standardized and widely reproducible method of testing. If such testing becomes standard use among manufacturers and suppliers, it would allow companies and consumers a way to sanction human rights abuses through the marketplace.
In the geologist's argument, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?
(a) The first presents a circumstance for which the geologist offers an explanation; the second is part of that explanation.
(b) The first acknowledges a consideration that weighs against the conclusion of the argument; the second is that conclusion.
(c) The first acknowledges a consideration that weighs against the conclusion of the argument; the second provides evidence in support of that conclusion.
(d) The first is a judgment advanced in support of the conclusion of the argument; the second is that conclusion.
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